(Solution) Avado 5CO02 Evidence-based practice



Your company is planning its forthcoming annual development event and the topic that the people practice team will be showcasing is evidence-based practice. In readiness for this event your manager has asked you to complete two tasks.

Task One – Report

Your first task is to write a report which provides the audience with an understanding of what evidence-based practice is and the strategies that can be taken for effective critical thinking and decision-making, you must ensure that you:

  • ▪  Provide evaluation of the concept of evidence-based practice and assess how evidence-based practice approaches can be used to provide insight in supporting sound decision-making and judgments for people practitioners across a range of people practices and organisational issues. (AC 1.1)
  • ▪  Provide evaluation of one appropriate analysis tool and one method that might be applied by organisations to recognise and diagnose current and future issues, challenges, and opportunities. (AC 1.2)
  • ▪  Explain the main principles of critical thinking and describe how these might apply to individual and work colleagues’ ideas to assist objective and rationale debate. (AC 1.3)
  • ▪  Explain a range of decision-making processes that can be applied to ensure that effective outcomes are achieved. (AC 1.4)
  • ▪  Assess a range of different ethical theories and perspectives and explain how understanding of these can be used to inform and influence moral decision-making. (AC 1.5)
  • ▪  Appraise different ways and approaches organisations can take to measure financial and non-financial performance. (AC 3.1)
  • ▪  Explain how people practices add value in an organisation and identify a range of methods that might be used to measure the impact of a range of people practices (AC 3.2) You should relate to academic concepts, theories and professional practice throughout your report to ensure that your work is critical and informed by using key academic texts, articles and relevant publications. All cited references used should be correctly acknowledged and presented in full in a bibliography at the end of your report.

Task Two Quantitative and qualitative analysis review

By way of exemplifying the importance of decision-making strategies and how these can be used by people practitioners to solve people practice issues, your manager wants you to illustrate to the audience how the people professional department interprets different types of data to inform sound decision making. Completion of these two activities will address the following:

  • ▪  With reference to a people practice issue, interpret analytical data using appropriate analysis tools and methods. (AC 2.1)
  • ▪  Present the findings for stakeholders from people practice activities and initiatives. (AC 2.2)
  • ▪  Make justified recommendations based on evaluation of the benefits, risks and financial implications of potential solutions. (AC 2.3) Presented below are two sets of data. Firstly, review the absence data that is presented in Table 1 and provide analysis of it to show:
  1. a)  trends across departments
  2. b)  absence by type
  3. c)  absence by gender
  4. d)  total days lost through absence
  5. e)  annual total costs through absence based on a 37-hour working week.

Present your finding using appropriate diagrammatical forms and make justifiable recommendations based on your evaluations.


Table of Contents

Task One- Report. 2

1.1 Evidence-Based Practice; sound Decision-making and Judgements. 2

Definition. 2

Evidence-Based Approaches 2

1.2 Analysis tool and method for recognising and diagnosing current and future issues, challenges and opportunities  3

1.3 Principles of critical thinking; application in individual and work colleagues ideas for objective and rationale debate  5

Own Ideas to assist objective and rationale debate. 6

Other people Ideas. 6

1.4 Decision-making process for effective outcomes achievement. 6

1.5 Ethical Theories and perspectives; informing and influencing moral decision-making. 7

Utilitarianism.. 7

Universalism.. 8

3.1 Ways and approaches of measuring financial and non-financial performance. 8

Financial (Return on Investment) 9

Non-Financial (Customer Satisfaction) 9

3.4 Adding value to organisation; measuring impact of a range of people practices. 10

Task Two- Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis Review.. 11

2.1 Interpreting Analytical Data by using Analysis Tools and Methods. 11

Trends Across Departments. 11

2.2 Key Findings for stakeholders from people practice activities and initiatives. 16

2.3 Justified recommendations. 19

References. 21

Task One- Report

1.1 Evidence-Based Practice; sound Decision-making and Judgements


Considering the CIPD HR Professional Map, the evidence-based practice (EBP) is categorised as a core knowledge (CIPD, 2022. It entail a process of developing insights, problems solving, ideas development with impact measured. Also, Lauseng et al. (2019) note that EBP is important in decision making as it entails application of evidence from various sources for achieving good business results. This is through diagnosis, evaluating, analysing and synthesising information. For Saudi Aramco for instance, through the application of EBP, the strengths of this include good decisions resulting. This is with their people practice professionals being in alignment with the strategic goals. The drawbacks however include a lot of hindrance in developing them. However, for Saudi Aramco, application of EBP offers an opportunity for promoting employee voice and all stakeholders inclusion. Nevertheless, often, the organisation is affected by issues with data authenticity which is used in EBP.

Evidence-Based Approaches

The selected approaches include critical thinking and group decision making. A summary of their strengths and drawbacks is shown in table 1;

Evidence-based approachStrengthsDrawbacksSupporting sound decision-making
Critical thinkingImproved critical thinkingImproved decision making processMisunderstanding elicited by language and cultural differenceReluctance for critiquing for consideration of alternative viewsThrough critical thinking, it is possible to analyse information for making appropriate judgement and decisions Also, it harness logic, reasoning and creativity for understanding all issues effectively
Group decision-makingGenerating improved outcomesOffering broad perspectiveTime-intensive processCompromising the decisions being madeThe group involved is highly creative and hence effectiveness in overall decision making process

The models have a direct implication in supporting sound decision-making judgements. The models include;

Critical thinking model– As evidenced in MindTools (2022), through critical thinking, it is possible to rigorously and skilfully. This is by use of information, leveraging on experiences, observations and reasoning. This is while guiding decision making, actions and beliefs. For instance, in Saudi Aramco organisation, after COVID-19 pandemic emerged, there were issues with employees absenteeism which were prevalent. Working as a people practice professional, through an active questioning I managed to recommend the need to adopt strategic rewards in managing the challenge. This is by questioning entire steps of the thinking process for its successful implementation. The process followed include a holistic questioning of the decisions to come p with the right one informed by in-depth understanding.

Rational model– This is defined in Evans and Prokopenko (2021) as an approach where the decision making adopt the use of facts and information, analysis and stepwise procedure for arriving at a common decision. This is identified as an advanced approach of decision making. For instance, in Saudi Aramco, this method has been used in management of the staff skills shortage. This is through harnessing the mitigation of any bias in the decision making, enhancing validity and reliability of the final results.

In conclusion, the adoption of evidence-based practice is relevant for modern organisations operations. This is particularly important when there is a need of ensuring that new organisation strategies are established. The rationale of this is informed by the holistic diagnosis which is made on the causes of an issue in an organisation, prioritising on the internal and external available data. Eventually, the most appropriate recommendation on the best decision is arrived at.

1.2 Analysis tool and method for recognising and diagnosing current and future issues, challenges and opportunities

According to Paurova and Gregova (2020), the microenvironment is relevant to an entity or the immediate location/sector of practice. This is with macro-environment including the broad factors which affect an organisation.

Analysis Tool (Porter’s Forces)– According to Juliana and Nyoman (2019), the Porter’s 5 Forces is relevant for identifying and analysing the competitive forces which shape an industry and assisting to establish weak areas in an industry and their strengths. In regard to advantages, through the use of Porter’s 5 Forces, it is possible to appreciate the aspects which impact profitability in a particular industry. Also, less time is spent in its implementation. Nevertheless, for disadvantages, this method is identified as being outdated. This is since there are new emerging factors which impact an organisation operations. Also, this method is not applicable universally in entire industries. Considering Saudi Aramco, the Porter’s 5 forces analysis is as illustrated in figure 1;

Figure 1: Porter’s 5 Forces Analysis

Future Issues- In regard to the future issues, Mugo (2020) note that the Porter’s 5 Forces is important to assess competitive landscape of business environment. This is with future issues on competition and bargaining power identified.

Challenges- The inexistence of strong bargaining power, immense threats of new entrants and multiple substitutes are a hindrance to successful organisation operations in their business environment.

Opportunities– In Mehjabeen (2018), it highlight that through an effective adoption of this model, entire opportunities which note on the competitive level and market attractions are highlighted. This is for holistic venturing in a sector with appropriate management of encountered challenges.

Method (Surveys)– According to Barry et al. (2021), the importance of use of surveys is to diagnose current and future issues, challenges and opportunities. The advantage of this approach is its positive contribution to use of large data population hence leveraging on immense statistical power. Additionally, in line with MindTools (2022), the use of surveys promote the capacity to gather immense information and data to develop the best findings. For their disadvantages, this include a lot of time being spent to implement it with a lot of cost incurred. Also, there could prevail competing urgent tasks which lower ability to prioritise.

Future issues- Through an effective use of surveys, there is a possibility of noting potential future issues. The issues would impact organisation success in their practice.

Challenges-  In line with Oliveri et al. (2021) findings, by appropriate use of surveys, honest-based feedback is sourced, opinions respected and responses appraised.

Opportunities-  Surveys are identified in Mugo (2020) as being important in sourcing information used in an organisation. The outcome of this is risk reduction, gaining appropriate insights, and a leverage on future opportunities.

1.3 Principles of critical thinking; application in individual and work colleagues ideas for objective and rationale debate

The principles of critical thinking are defined in Alkhatib (2019) as the process adopted in conceptualising, analysing and evaluating information. This is obtained from observations, experience and engagement.

The different principles include;

Detailed Information Search– According to CIPD (2022) this entail obtaining data, interpreting it and integrating it to critical thinking. As a best practice, the organisations must prioritise on micro and macro factors which highlight on the best practice based on data.

Considering Unconscious Bias– According to Bunbury (2019), the unconscious bias evidence the potential of human mind to take shortcuts as part of information synthesis. This is for saving time in decision making which is core particularly while working in pressure and necessity for meeting deadlines.

Not Jumping to Conclusions– In critical thinking, Mutakinati et al. (2018) note that jumping into conclusions leads to challenges in clear view of distinct scenarios. This is with the risk of making ineffective or poor decision increasing. This has a negative implication on impacting relations, hurting confidence and lowering motivation of decision making.

Own Ideas to assist objective and rationale debate

In Saudi Aramco, prevalence of COVID-19 pandemic had a direct implication on attraction of human capital. Specifically, the temporary stoppage of travelling and expatriates mass exit back to their countries impacted the labour pool. The options which were available for the organisation included releasing them as it was hard supporting them amidst of the pandemic. Hence, as a people practice professional, I had to adopt critical thinking to suggest the best way forward for the organisation. Through a collaboration with the administration and management, an in-depth consultation was ensued. The outcome of this was suggesting to the accounting department to offer the employees with a retainer as a percentage of their full pay. Also, after business resumption, by engaging recruitment agencies, it was possible to recruit the best as opposed to referrals and professional bodies.

Other people Ideas

Quarterly, in Saudi Aramco, performance reviews of all departments is pursued. The importance of this is to ensure there is a collaborative operation of all the departments for harnessing an optimum organisation operations. The performance review results had indicated marketing department had not been effective in their performance. Working as a people practice professional, I had to independently investigate the issue and engage the administration to get the most appropriate solution. The idea of the marketing manager was to offer a performance-based pay. This is while altering their contracts both short and long-term basis.

By use of critical thinking, I engaged all the participants for a different appointment process within 3 months. Through a leverage on data and graphical analysis, I was able to suggest the most appropriate strategy for the marketing teams. By sue of KPIs and review of entire outcomes, I managed to establish the best practice. I made a suggestion of total rewards contrary to the suggested performance-based pay by the marketing manager. Implementing the latter would have been costly and time intensive with the results not being sustainable.

1.4 Decision-making process for effective outcomes achievement

Future Pacing- As defined in Juliana et al. (2019), the future pacing entail a decision making approach in which all engaged stakeholders need to imagine themselves as already operating in a future expected scenario. An appropriate example can include identifying a topic area, issues encountered and limitations which could impact an employee or even a client. The strengths of using this approach include appropriateness in engaging audience in making decisions promptly. This is with their priorities being on feelings and expectations with the effectiveness of the outcome dependent on positive or negative of the outcome. The drawbacks of this method include unclear description of their effectiveness. Also, a lot of time need to be invested for its implementation. Considering Saudi Aramco, this is used to identify appropriate outcome to challenges linked with demotivated employees, low engagement levels and overall morale.

Best fit- Considering this approach, it is noted in Shaw et al. (2021) as inclusive of noting on how professionals can resolve issues as a best-fit. Any difference identified is appropriate supported and problems successfully resolved. The advantage of this is successful evaluation of the most appropriate practice to manage employees turnover in Saudi Aramco. The disadvantages include ineffectiveness in noting the best decision making strategy that is accommodative to all.

Reframing Matrix- As identified in Lempert and Turner (2021), this approach entail prioritising on understanding, definition and priority on challenges encountered by an organisation. In regard to Saudi Aramco, this is adopted to appreciate specific organisation issues and in real-time gain their solutions. Considering the projects and processes pursued in an organisation, a best practice which is applicable in all-round to manage the challenges is achieved. This is important to evaluate turnover challenges with best decisions arrived at to improve or manage it.  

1.5 Ethical Theories and perspectives; informing and influencing moral decision-making


Please click the icon below to receive this assessment in full