(Solution) CIPD 5OS06 different concepts and range of approaches that are available for effective leadership and management development (AC 2.2)


Learning theories have been a key reference to how and why adults learns in recent years. Learning is a continuous process among leaders and managers and both learning and application are interwoven. They reinforce each other, but how adults learn is different from how children learn. Adult learning is social learning, learner-centred and active learning. Social learning is emphasised in the Knox’s proficiency theory of learning that proposes that adult learning arise from life situations and interpersonal communication (Connolly et al., 2021). Social expectations drives leaders and managers to look for better skills and knowledge. Learner-centred is direct application, for example, leaders learn to create a vision, motivate and inspire their followers while managers learn to strategically think and manage resources. Active learning is also about learning by application, doing and experience. United LEC leaders and managers need to learn so that they can pass this knowledge to their teams and help the company to achieve its goals and objective. Approaches available for LMD are:

Formal learning

Several formal LMD qualifications and courses are available for United LEC leaders and managers. These include in-house leadership and management programmes, courses offered by professional bodies and leadership and management apprenticeships (Quilliam, 2022). However, it is important for United LEC to deliver formal learning through online so that it can reach all members in the subsidiary companies. The advantages of this type of learning is flexibility in nature (Zablith, 2022). People can access learning and can study anytime and anywhere. It is also a useful way for leaders and managers to broaden their skills on recent trends and about techniques of leadership and management. Its disadvantage is the high cost of learning that may be incurred by organisation or individual’s members. Remote areas have challenges in internet connectivity which can be a challenge for some participants.


Secondments is about moving an individual from one job to another on a temporarily basis. This could be in another organisation or same organisation but different positions (Booth and Oldridge, 2023). Its advantage is gaining experience and skills in new roles. This makes people to be prepared to higher positions. It is also part of succession and contingency planning which is vital in managing risk of skill shortage. However, secondment has its disadvantage. People who are moved to a higher position may lack motivation to return to their original work. They may also consider leaving to search for higher positions where they already have skills and experience.

Communities of practice

Communities of practice is when leaders or managers of common interest meet to share ideas, exchange information and share experience on a regular basis (Quilliam, 2022). This can be through an online platform or even a physical settings. Its advantage include development of networking and confidence skills when people learn as a group. United LEC can benefit by gaining value in talent retention and innovations. It can also improve speed and efficiency of training new members within the workplace.  However, communities of practice can hold others hostage to their expertise.

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