The emergency medical service (EMS) workers are exposed to psychological issues both in the short and long term. This is affirmed by Smith and Roberts (2003) study that noted that despite emergency medical service workers designation being rewarding, individuals are equally expected to deal with traumatizing events. To affirm this, Boudreaux and Mandry (1996) study had concluded that as opposed to all the other health professionals, the EMS stress and burnout levels are among the highest. After an occurrence of a disaster, the EMS could be exposed to risks of suffering from acute stress disorders which are a significant risk factor for further development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A study that focused on the emergency medical service providers (Halpern et al., 2009) pointed out that 80% of the group ends up developing the PTSD. The different psychiatric symptoms are directly linked to incidents or a traumatic event experienced by pre-hospital emergency technicians which could not necessarily be the PTSD. It is hence critical for the emergency services providers to develop a detailed plan for the management of the psychological stressors (Scuri et al., 2019). Nevertheless, studies that have adopted a robust methodology for testing the effectiveness of the PTSD intervention are significantly rare (Van der Ploeg & Kleber, 2003). Some of the best studies that have detailed on the best practice in their management have equally been criticized due to their lack of scientific rigour before their application with others showing limited effectiveness in their mitigating effect of PTSD. In a different context, Bercier and Maynard (2015) noted that despite availability of sufficient literature that has focused on the causative factors of the posttraumatic stress symptoms, less focus has been evident on the effectiveness of different interventions. It is as such instrumental for the EMS and the healthcare institutions in which they are engaged to examine what does and does not work appropriately for ameliorating the negative effects experienced from the encounter to the traumatic incidences.
Taking into account of the above background, the aims of this systematic review are to identify literature relating to interventions for reducing posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in ambulance workers and identify what is effective, for which group of people, and for which conditions. This review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (Moher et al., 2006) and narrative synthesis guidelines (Popay et al., 2006).
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