Attitude and Job Satisfaction with Motivation and Organisation Behaviour


According to DeShon and Gillespie (2005) study that focuses on the motivated action theory and
goal orientation, motivation is a representation of forces of working on or within an individual
that has a character of behaving in a specific goal-oriented manner. High-level employee
motivation is associated with an employee ability to work beyond the scope of their employer
expectations. In line with the Herzberg motivation theory, Putra et al. (2017) note that employees
are motivated by extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. These include monetary, psychological, and
physical needs. The attitude generated to employees from intrinsic rewards is gaining an
enjoyable emotion, which is achieved through being timely in employees’ roles with extrinsic
being offered to an individual by others to act as a gratitude for being effective in assigned roles.
This can include promotions, commendation, and an increase in salaries.
According to Poupore (2016), there are group and individual dynamics that influence employee
motivation. From a unique context, these include their attitudes, personal needs, values held, and
interests. Apart from this, Parashakti (2018) note that the organisation characteristics and culture
has a direct influence on such organisations employee’s motivation. These views have been
summarised by Menges et al. (2017) study that points out that the majority of the motivational
theorists agree to the belief that motivation is inclusive of aspects of employee performance.
Nevertheless, the author noted that variations of the performance are dependent on behaviours
which are evident from environmental aspects, memory, perceptions, and cognitive development.
3.1 Motivation Theories
Maslow Need Theory
According to Li et al. (2019), the Maslow’s Need Theory is based on the assumption that worker
has five stages which include psychological needs, safety needs, love and belonging, esteem and
self-actualisation (see figure 1);


Physiological needs (air, water, food,
shelter, sleep, clothing, reproduction)
Safety needs (personal security,
employment, resources, health, property)
Love and belonging (friendship, intimacy,
family, sense of connection)
Esteem (respect, self-esteem, recognition,
strength and freedom)
Self-actualisation (desire to become the
most that one can be)

Figure: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Source: Summarised from Li et al. (2019)
According to Kaur (2013), motivational factors are involved in playing a critical role in
harnessing employee satisfaction in their roles. Hence, having motivated employees in an
organisation is pointed out as being a valuable asset for creating value for an entity and to
strengthen an organisation and their business growth. From the Maslow hierarchy theory, Wahba
and Bridwell (1976) note that other major theories have been developed. These include
Alderfer’s ER Model (Alderfer’s, 2017), Maslow’s Pyrami (Abulof, 2017), and McClelland’s
Achievement Motivation Theory (Moore et al., 2010). The core assumption of Maslow’s
hierarchy theory is that after meeting one need for motivation, the need for a new one arises.
This means that the lower level needs must be fulfilled first before fulfilling the higher ones
Adam’s Equity Theory
According to Jalagat (2016), this theory

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