CIPD_5CO02_21_02 5CO02 Evidence-based practice Report Part One


Report: Part one

You are required to prepare a report to senior managers at their forthcoming annual meeting. The report needs to:

• Provide evaluation of the concept of evidence-based practice and assess how evidencebased practice approaches can be used to provide insight to support sound decision-making and judgments for people practitioners across a range of people practices and organisational issues. (1.1)
• Provide evaluation of one appropriate analysis tool and one method that might be applied by organisations to recognise and diagnose current and future issues, challenges, and opportunities. (1.2)
• Explain the main principles of critical thinking and describe how these might apply to individual and work colleagues’ ideas to assist objective and rational debate. (1.3)
• Assess a range of different ethical theories and perspectives and explain how understanding of these can be used to inform and influence moral decision-making. (1.4)
• Explain a range of approaches that could be taken by people practitioners to identify possible solutions to a specific issue relating to people practice. (2.3)
• Appraise one approach an organisation can take to measure financial and non-financial performance. (3.1)
• Explain how a variety of people practices add value in an organisation and identify a range of methods that might be used to measure the impact of a range of people practices (3.4)




Table of Contents

Task 1- Report. 2

1.1 Evidence-based Practice; Application in Decision-Making in People practice decision making process. 2

Definition of Evidence-Based Practice. 2

Evidence-Based Practice in People Practice Decision Making. 3

Evidence-Based Strategy/Failure in using Insights for Judgements. 4

1.2 Tool, Method of Future Issues, Challenges and Opportunities. 5

SWOT Analysis. 5

Organisation Metrics. 6

1.3 Principles of Critical Thinking. 7

Achievement my Objectives. 8

Ideas of others. 8

Decision-Making for Ensuring Effective Outcomes Achievement. 9

1.5 Ethical theories and perspectives. 10

Utilitarianism Theory. 10

Deontology Theory. 11

Importance of embracing ethical workplace. 11

3.1 Measuring Financial and Non-Financial Performance. 11

3.2 People Practices Adding Value to Organisations. 13

Task Two- Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis Review.. 14

2.1 Interpretation of Analytical Data. 14

2.2 Findings to Stakeholders for People Practice Activities and Initiatives. 20

2.3 Recommendations. 23

References. 25


Task 1- Report


In this report, it focuses on evaluating the concept of evidence-based practice. Owing to its importance in the modern organisations, this report evaluates how it can be embedded in an organisation with best results being obtained. Through provision of appropriate examples by focusing on appropriate examples of Saudi Aramco organisation, relevant findings have been obtained. The best practice for organisations implementing evidence-based practice has been identified and how different barriers and hindrances encountered can holistically be managed.

1.1 Evidence-based Practice; Application in Decision-Making in People practice decision making process

Definition of Evidence-Based Practice

In line with CIPD HR Professional Map, an evidence-based practice (EBP) is categorised as a professional value. As evidenced in CIPD (2022), it include appropriate decision making, informing action which lead to projected results. Also, this concept can be traced back from Gordon Guyatt in 1990 in area of Medicine (Djulbegovic & Guyatt, 2017). Before this concept was introduced (EBP), there were no appropriate systems to support clinic medicine and research work. The advantage of this is that people practice professionals are in a position of making successful decisions to leverage on existing sources (Melnyk & Fineout-Overholt, 2022). A summary of this is shown in figure 1 provided in AVADO Notes;

Figure 1: Summary of the Evidence-Based Practice

For people practice issues, evidence-based approaches which can be adopted to guarantee sound decision making include;

Rationale Model– According to Kleijn et al. (2019), rationale model of decision making include all assumptions of choices which are made to maximise achievements and minimise issues. This is by selection of critical rewards and reducing costs. The strengths of this method include facilitating objectivity supported by scientific sourced data to reach on appropriate decisions. This is since it assist to minimise emotional-led decision making leading to inappropriate judgement made. The weakness of this method however include insufficient information being available important to achieve a good decision. Also, this method is time intensive for its implementation.

The application of this approach to people practice issues include;

Reward Issues– By using rationale model, it is possible to obtain scientific data to attain well informed decisions. The likelihood of errors and assumptions is reduced on reward issues. For Saudi Aramco context, rationale model is appropriate for developing strategic and performance-based rewards as opposed to benchmarking on most appropriate rationale model and detailed decision making.

Learning and Development (L&D)– Through the application of rationale model, there is a high possibility of improving consistency in L&D and evidence its importance. Also, the process aids development of a good work agreement to dedicate employees time in learning. This contribute to management of all gaps in learning. For Saudi Aramco, this method is used to come up with the most appropriate decision for L&D strategy. Benchmarking is also pursued important for rational model decision making.

Increased customer satisfaction– According to AIHR (2022), rationale model is important as it harness the possibility of classification of different product characteristics guided by how they perceive their customers and impact on clients satisfaction. The different classifications are important for guiding effective decision making by evidencing an appropriate scenario and when more is appropriate. In Saudi Aramco, this method is used to manage hindrances of customers satisfaction by ensuring they are engaged from the start of their engagement.

Critical Thinking

As evidenced in Kleijin et al. (2019), people have a characteristic of coming up with detailed decisions in particular groups dominance on different areas hence holistic in decision making. The limitation of this method include immense time being spent to implement it. The advantage of using critical thinking is identified by Adebayo et al. (2020) as ensuring objectives and efficient problem-solving is attained important for their practice. Also, by engaging multiple teams in critical thinking, improvement of analytical competency, improved communication, emotional intelligence and all problems solved. The disadvantages of this method include what TrainingZone (2019) note the process as inclusive of assumptions made, personal biasness emergence and egocentric thinking. Also, emotions are associated with inhibiting thinking in a clear and effective manner.

Using this method to people practice/organisation issues include;

Reduced employees turnover level– This is informed in CIPD (2021) as EBP ensuring that organisations promote an increased retention of best performing employees. This is with the turnover reduced with an upward of 40%. In KSA, most organisations have their retention ranging from 15% to 40%. To manage this, the EBP can appropriately be adopted (see figure 3);

Figure 3: Evidence-Based Practice and Turnover

Failure to effectively use critical thinking contribute to navigating the employees morale and commitment, reduced productivity and lowered performance of entities. In Saudi Aramco, they are in a position of using critical thinking, managing work-oriented performance and productivity harnessed.

Increased customers satisfaction– As evidenced in  Daniel (2019), there exist a direct correlation of critical thinking embrace and customers satisfaction in modern entities. The importance of this is informed by embrace of critical thinking improving likelihood of evidencing weak areas, threats and opportunities.

Learning and Development (L&D)- Through an effective adoption of critical thinking, Garcia et al. (2022) argue that it is possible to ensure this is in alignment with organisation objectives. Further, by critical thinking, there is a necessity for mirroring on distinct organisation needs, available and demanded skills and training and development strategies in their achieved results. Further, by embrace of critical thinking, there is a possibility of improving the quality of L&D approaches essential for an entity best practice.

1.2 Tool, Method of Future Issues, Challenges and Opportunities

SWOT Analysis

In CIPD (2021a), SWOT analysis represent a tool which evaluate Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. The importance of this framework is represented by ability of matching organisation practices, programs set and ability to integrate internal environment. In Saudi Aramco, SWOT Analysis is as shown in figure 4;

Figure 4: SWOT Analysis Summary for Saudi Aramco

For appreciating and diagnosing current and future potential challenges, SWOT analysis can be used as part of strategic thinking and used in a holistic manner. This is with the opportunities and threats which are external prioritised for brainstorming and engaging all practitioners (Fedorowicz et al., 2020). For disadvantages, SWOT analysis is subjective and only focus on a single area of interest and also not detailed. There are other tools with more than 4 factors to be evaluated.

Organisation Metrics

For the method, organisation metrics has been identified. This is defined by Mohammed, D. and Quddus (2019) as being applied in improving performances. This is while identify evaluation and improvement of their operations. For Saudi Aramco organisation, the metrics which tend to be people centric is illustrated in figure 5;

Figure 5: Summary of Organisation Metrics

For diagnosing today and future strategies, organisation metrics are used for managing revenues, profits and sales identifying the strategy pursued in an organisation operation. For their disadvantages, the organisation metrics and efficiency has a positive implication on identifying the issues and opportunities in place. The disadvantages of this include Saudi Aramco being applied to forecast and estimate performance.

1.3 Principles of Critical Thinking

This is identified in CIPD (2019) as a significant skill which is owned by the people practice professionals. It is appropriate to share ideas, shape opinion and argue with others. This is supported by Lincoln and Kearney (2019) which identify critical thinking as including management of relevant and arbitrary-based information to establish best metrics affecting focus areas. See figure 6 summary;

Figure 6: Summary of Critical Thinking Approach
Critical Thinking Principles

Rational Judgements Made– Through an adoption of Monteiro et al. (2020) definition, a Rational Decision Theory inform the process as promoting the capacity of pursuing an objective sourcing of data, use of logic and analysis process contrary to being subjective and simple intuition.

Evaluating Validity of Sources– As part of critical thinking, this is used to evaluate the level of truth in regard to information provided. This is noted in Monteiro et al. (2020) as having the strength of evaluating the valid level of all sources used. In regard to weaknesses, these include lack of high-level quality sources which could lead to inappropriate classification of sources.

Bias Identified– In critical thinking, Royce et al. (2019) identify critical thinking as promoting possibility of cognitive bias inclusive of distortion of likelihood of perpetuating different types of misconception/misinformation in terms of holistic decision making. Hence, inaccurate data end up being evaded, uncomfortable as opposed to issues investigations which contribute to accurate results. The disadvantages however entail failing in option for the alternatives and best practice in decision making.

Achievement my Objectives

From the time COVID-19 pandemic emerged, Saudi Aramco as an oil and gas sector, significant issues have been evident impacting their revenues. For Saudi Aramco, they have encountered immense issues in reduced KSA administration facilitation. Considering Saudi Aramco has an upward of 30,000 employees in different department, their facilitation and supporting them is a major challenge. By using critical thinking, I recommended my organisation to pursue technology based resourcing, redundancy management and retirement which could lead to issues to the organisation. I also recommended the need to pursue annually provided leave-time and be offered with good pay to the point KSA and international economy is stable.

Ideas of others

In late 2022 (November), I pursued performance appraisal in Saudi Aramco. In my position as a people practice professional, I ensured I succeeded in the practice success. The outcome of this was particular departments being identified as low performers with less profits and overall sales being lowered. For the organisation management team, a decision was realised for reviewing pay of employees in the departments. In particular, they were supposed to be provided with performance oriented remuneration leading to likelihood of attaining organisation performance.

I made sure that all suggestions made were in detail merged. This lead to the necessity for working on critical thinking for reviewing the importance of the undertaking. I managed to identify suitability of strategic rewards. I was in a position of using the provided data by employees to improve on their recognition and appreciation.

Decision-Making for Ensuring Effective Outcomes Achievement

Please click the icon below to download this assessment for only $15