Clinical Pharmacology Smoking, Stress and contraceptives

-what medical consultant options are appropriate for a patient dealing with alot of stress? -what contraceptive options are contraindicated for patients who smoke? -what type of patient education is indicated for female patient who is on contraceptives and smokes due to stress? -if patient is unable to to quit smoking, what contraceptives are still allowed to be prescribed?
Smoking, oral contraceptives, and reactivity to stress
Stress is the body’s natural response to needs and usually occurs as an urgency or tension. Prolonged stress can lead to smoking behavior as a way of relieving the stress. However, Vinogradova, Coupland & Hippisley (2015), indicated that Smoking women with constant use of contraceptives are at higher risk of heart related disorders as a result of negative reactions between various contraceptives and nicotine.
Mental-health- care practitioners can help patients with chronic stress to rule out the possible psychological disorder necessary for the stress symptoms. Critical stress disorders such as Posttraumatic stress and clinical depression can be regulated through psychotropic medications including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as Sertraline, fluoxetine, and citalopram (Chenoweth et al., 2014).Similarly, Nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, and varenicline are pharmacotherapies that are ideal for acute smokers who are under stress.
Oral contraceptives and smoking
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