(Solution) 7CO04 Task 1.2: Develop a literature review which focuses on the key people practice issues


Selected Title: Business Research in People Practice Impact of Training and Development on the Improvement of Employee Performance in the IT sector of Saudi Arabia

Over the years, different studies have been pursued for evaluating the impact of training and development on the improvement of employee performance. In an earlier study by Rodriguez and Walters (2017), it identified the employees training and development as opportunities offered to employees for improving their skills and abilities. In particular, this is intended for promoting their career development.  This definition was expounded further by Hammond and Churchill (2018) study which identified training and development as a process of obtaining or transferring knowledge, skills and abilities for pursuing particular activities/tasks. In this regard, the training and development is for the optimum benefit of the employer and employees. Nevertheless, Aburumman et al. (2020) noted that many organisations have failed in successfully implementing training and development strategies in their organisations. It can hence be summarised that training and development involve leveraging on strategies intended to improve employees knowledge, skills and capabilities to optimum benefit of employees and employers.

From the reviewed studies, the core purpose of training and development is to pursue career development. Adopting the definition of Niati et al. (2021) career development is a process adopted to increase an individual employability  for achieving their desired career. The rationale of this is both offering opportunities for employees for sourcing higher career paths and appreciation for their efforts in organisations. These findings are affirmed by Rusilowati and Maulida (2020) study which hypothesised that through career development, employees are able to plan for their future careers in their organisation to ensure that organisation and employees are under optimum development. Hence, through an integration of training and development strategies, organisations are in a position of harnessing their employees career growth and development. Nevertheless, Patton and McMahon (2021) study through the application of Krumboltz’s Social Learning Theory of Career Development argued on the relevant insights of dealing with less scope of control possessed on career experiences. The theory is informed by the view that unpredictable social factors leads to occurrences and environmental factors which are core for influencing customers lives. Hence, as proposed by Aburumman et al. (2020) through the use of social learning theory, the best practice in ensuring learning and development lead to career development is ensuring that environmental factors control the process as opposed to innate or internal forces.

Further, Haryono et al. (2020) report identified the employees promotion to occur when an employee is transferred from one job position to the other, increased rewards, more responsibilities and level. Further, Hendri (2019) note that through the employees job promotion, it is possible to offer relevant opportunities for personal growth, increased responsibilities and social status. To support this, Benson and Shue (2019) had introduced the Peter Principle which is informed by the view that a common tendency for majority of the organisational hierarchies including corporation for the employees rising in their hierarchy by promotion. Through a holistic training and development, it is possible to increase the employees potential of being promoted to assume to higher job positions in their organisations.

In regard to the impact of training and development for employees good leadership, various studies have underscored the relationship of this. For instance, Turner et al. (2018) research had noted that through an effective training and development, employees are in a position of learning essential skills they need in their job roles and introducing leadership skills and software knowledge essential for their future. In a different approach but having similar findings, Turner et al. (2018) argued that at the point of training and development, it is possible identifying the high-potential people with a likelihood of becoming leaders and extending their capabilities and knowledge of people who already execute their leadership functions. The leaders are offered with training on both soft and hard skills based on such entities faced challenges and limitations.

Also, as evidenced in Musriha (2019) there exist a direct correlation of employees performance and training and motivation. In this study, it highlighted that through training and development, this lead to the employees increased performance. This is also supported by Murray et al. (2022) study which has argued on the direct correlation of the organisations being offered with appropriate training opportunities end up enhancing the overall performance. This is for optimum benefit of all stakeholders engaged. In a different but with similar findings, Hotz et al. (2021) had argued that by provision of appropriate training and development, it is possible for employees to increase their knowledge and skills hence performing their roles in optimum/effectively.

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