(Solution) CIPS Negotiation Assessment (PIN)

Executive Summary

This integrative assessment for Corporate Award Program establishes a formal commercial negotiation for Occidental of Oman operating in oil and gas industry. Commercial negotiation plan has been developed by reference to data, factual information and CIPS tools. HSE and chemicals portfolio spend category has been identified and evaluated in-depth to come up with an appropriate  negotiation plan. The importance of identifying the HSE and Chemicals are informed by the previous COVID-19 pandemic which has informed on the need for adopting healthy business environment which is free from any  infections. Further, coming from the pandemic where the level of business operations had significantly reduced and the organisation need to restart their operations by cleansing their systems and machines. In this case, the need for HSE and the chemicals portfolio in Occidental of Oman has been in an upward trajectory. For negotiation successful implementation, Occidental of Oman involves professionals, terms and conditions initiated, holistic readiness and streamlined procurement and supply chain approaches. This is with good forecast and plans  being core for guaranteeing customers services delivery on time.

By use of various analysis tools, the findings highlight that Occidental of Oman adopt various negotiation phases as guided by the CIPS. These steps include prepare, open, propose, bargain, agree and close. Also, the findings of the STEEPLE, Porter’s 5 Forces and SWOT analysis evidence the different strengths to capitalise on for achievement of holistic negotiation approach. From the findings sourced in stakeholders analysis, the supplier preferencing matrix highlight on the need to harness the negotiation approaches.

A set of benefits have also be sourced by using the 3P’s model of triple bottom line, importance of communication, engagement, teamwork process, accountability and management of entire conflicts being core. The identified initiatives promote successful negotiation approach and to mitigate potential bottleneck attained by embracing the BATNA Technique.

From the findings obtained in this assessment, a set of recommendations have been developed. These are;

  • Holistically restructuring current Occidental of Oman negotiation strategy
  • Pursuing outsourcing approach for purpose of attain value for money outcomes and effectiveness of their PS&M
  • Establishing accurate and good specification matrix for all Occidental of Oman contract development
  • Harness effectiveness of supplier selection approach by using tools such as STEEPLE and PESTLE Forces

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction. 4

1.1 Report Purpose. 4

1.2 Organisation Background. 5

1.3 HSE and Chemicals Category of Spend. 6

2.0 Evaluation of Occidental of Oman Procurement and Supply Management (PS&M) Strategy. 7

2.1 RACI Stakeholders Model in Occidental of Oman. 8

2.2 Stakeholders Analysis. 10

3.0 Negotiation Plan for Occidental of Oman in H&S and Chemicals. 13

3.1 Preparation. 15

3.1.1 SWOT Analysis. 16

3.1.2 STEEPLED Analysis. 17

3.1.3 BATNA in Negotiation Preparation. 17

3.1.4 Negotiation Approaches. 18

3.2 Opening. 20

3.3 Testing. 20

3.4 Proposing. 21

3.4.1 4R’s Model use in Proposing. 21

3.5 Bargaining. 24

3.6 Closing and Agreement 24

4.0 Developing Contracts Evaluation. 25

5.0 Conclusions and Recommendations. 25

References. 28

Figure 1:Reasons for Negotiation process. 5

Figure 2:Occidental of Oman Sectors of operations. 6

Figure 3:P&SM Structure in the Occidental of Oman. 7

Figure 4:Procurement Cycle. 9

Figure 5:Summary of RACI Matrix. 10

Figure 6:Stakeholders Analysis. 12

Figure 7:Occidental of Oman Stakeholders Analysis Summary. 13

Figure 8:Negotiation Stages 14

Figure 9:Steps of Negotiation. 15

Figure 10:Steps of Negotiation. 16

Figure 11:Occidental of Oman H&S and Chemicals spend category negotiation. 17

Figure 12:Occidental of Oman BATNA. 19

Figure 13:Negotiation Strategies for Occidental Oman. 20

Figure 14:4R’s Model use in Proposing. 23

Figure 15:3P’s Triple Bottomline. 24

Figure 16:Supplier Preferencing Matrix. 25

1.0 Introduction

Today, post-COVID-19 pandemic, organisations are operating in a challenging economic conditions and new competitiveness. As a result, Selviaridis (2020) argue that this constrain the success rates of all commercial contracts. These challenges have impacted management of stakeholders relationships, costing, ordering and delivery, quality levels and any variation of the contract. It is in this regard that CIPS (2017) has introduced the need for establishing a negotiation process which ensure holistic engagement, stakeholders relations, good negotiation and advice received. Additionally, CIPS (2022) argue that negotiation basically entail a holistic communication process among various involved parties with main objectives and expectations including attainment of mutual decision. In figure 1 summary, for negotiations to be successful, they are characterised by a set of factors. Also, negotiation process success is characterised with entire parties being satisfied and improving performance for being in line with the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) and SLA’s.

Figure 1:Reasons for Negotiation process

1.1 Report Purpose

This report provides a background information which is relevant for guiding formal commercial negotiation plan in Occidental of Oman Organisation. This is by referencing on desk research which offer factual information, best practice and data. There are various aspects which have been noted as core for evaluating them and entail quality factors, terms and conditions summary, timelines, communication and stakeholders relations. For achieving the report purpose, a set of tools and models such as Mendelow’s matrix, Kraljic Matrix, 3P’s Bottom Line, BATNA have been analysed. Also, Supply and Demand Curve, SWOT analysis, Porter tool and STEEPLE have been analysed to evaluate business environment impact on negotiations. Eventually, a set of recommendations on improving negotiation by Occidental of Oman have been provided.

1.2 Organisation Background

In this assessment, Occidental of Oman has been identified as an organisation of focus. This organisation has been actively operating in the oil and gas sector in Oman and has over the years been involving in a set of business endeavours  (OXY, 2022). This is in assets development, infrastructure growth, engagement of expertise and technologies which ensure that Oman citizens lives are improved substantially. By actively pursuing their operations in the Oman sector, Occidental of Oman has been in a position of leveraging on the multiple opportunities in the country specifically in sustainable business practice whose overall outcome has been a holistically improved quality of life in the world. Additionally, Occidental of Oman is involved in a set of operations as summarised in figure 2;

Figure 2:Occidental of Oman Sectors of operations

Considering the holistic nature of this organisation practices, OXY (2022a) argue that the organisation has managed to acquire a cumulative profit of £1.7 billion with a contribution to Oman and international governments taxation of approximately £1.2 bullion in the second half of year 2022. Additionally, the organisation has managed to explore approximately 1,200 thousands of oil barrels daily in the second quarter of 2022 which is more than midpoint of guidance of 48 mode.

Hence, considering this background information, in this report, it focuses on developing a negotiation plan. This plan would be relevant for Occidental of Oman cost savings and market dominance in this sector. This is through a holistic negotiation plan which integrate their best practice in the identified sector.

Considering the organisation hierarchical organisation structure is as illustrated in figure 3.  In specific, their PS&M is mandated of ensuring that collaboratively and within set terms and conditions, stakeholders competence is attained and high value attained (see figure 3);

Figure 3:P&SM Structure in the Occidental of Oman

1.3 HSE and Chemicals Category of Spend

In Occidental of Oman Organisation, they have different sub-categories of HSE and chemicals portfolio. As evidenced in Airiagbonaye et al. (2020), the rationale of spending on HSE and Chemicals portfolio is informed by the need to formulate and address and contributing to reasonable applicable reduction of linked accidents. Also, it is used in managing any form of fatalities, losses (time and properties) and the occupational health. Further, for the chemicals, Occidental of Oman sources different chemicals are sourced include Tannins, different lignosulfonate salts and different phosphates and synthetic polymers including sodium poly (styrene sulfonate-co-maleic anhydride) which are appropriately applied. Particularly, for Occidental of Oman, they are involved in procurement of the partially hydrolysed polyacrymide which are similarly applied to drill fluids (Das et al., 2020).

Therefore, considering Occidental of Oman operations, the most appropriate sourcing approach for the various spend categories imply they have a significant control of their supply and procurement processes.

In this regard, considering the Occidental of Oman organisation most appropriate sourcing strategy, various spend categories imply they are holistically controlling the entire supply and procurement approaches (CIPS, 2022). This is informed by essential need, demands and evidencing supply chain in an entity value chain. For evaluating the appropriateness of the spend category, various tools would be appropriately adopted.

2.0 Evaluation of Occidental of Oman Procurement and Supply Management (PS&M) Strategy

In PS&M, the various phases adopted are intended to ensure high quality level is attained and on-time supply of different products and services as stipulated in buyer specifications. While introducing the procurement cycle, Jenssen and De Boer (2019) identify this as a process which is inclusive of various phases which are pursued in phases hence having an impact on process effectiveness. A major determinant of this is to embrace competency in various procurement process areas and to ensure alignment of organisation goals. As illustrated in figure 4, the best practice in procurement is explained. At the start, the entire organisational requirements are identified with the entire specifications developed holistically. For this phase, an organisation is supposed to identify the entire needs and capitalise on appropriate opportunities. This is what CIPS (2017) identify as engagement of various cross-functional teams evaluated and development of a holistic specifications increase. This is also inclusive of engaging different stakeholders at an early stage to avert potential delays and bottlenecks.

To develop the entire specifications, the core areas of interest are inclusive of evaluating counterfeits skills and people practices, identifying quality demands, sustainable practice, holistic stakeholders inclusion, innovation embrace and technology.

Figure 4:Procurement Cycle

In Occidental of Oman, for success in their PS&M operations, they adopt the procurement cycle holistically. The various identified phases are intended to harness their capacity to evaluate the entire business needs, pursuing a holistic market analysis, good planning and strategy implementation, documentation, issuing tenders, performance improvement and logistic. For Occidental of Oman, the main factors put into account in the procurement process evidence the overall input of their stakeholders. This is specifically relevant in the HSE and chemicals portfolio spend category. This is identified in Bull et al. (2021) as noting the most appropriate strategy for determining stakeholder types which is core for aiding an appropriate positioning of the negotiation process efficiently. Further, to achieve success in pursuing the stakeholders analysis, a holistic inclusion of an organisation with relevant people practices and sourcing plan is important. This can appropriately be evaluated by referencing on the RACI Stakeholders analysis model.

2.1 RACI Stakeholders Model in Occidental of Oman

For success of the PS&M, all the modules (1-4) in this CIPS course have identified on the need for involving people in an accountable manner and harnessing their competencies in the different phases of the procurement. By use of RACI (Responsible, Accountable, Consult, and Inform), the best individual is selected in the supply chain approach for guaranteeing all tasks implementation. According to Lee et al. (2021) this is an appropriate tool used to offer an opportunity for prioritising all interests of stakeholders and harnessing procurement and supply process (see figure 5);

Figure 5:Summary of RACI Matrix

Considering the HSE and chemicals spend category in Occidental of Oman sourcing, various stakeholders groups are involved and their practices are informed by the figure 5 steps of RACU Model. This is to harness the success of their relationships.

Responsible- This include the stakeholders or people with a mandate of implementing specified functions. Considering HSE and chemicals category of spend PS&M teams are engaged actively. Starting with the technicians, all stakeholders are viewed as important. For instance, the organisation in downstream in Oman has been accredited with ISO8738373 certification for their effectiveness of ensuring that they adopt a mutual agreement in their stakeholders relationships. In Wemyss (2018) report which uses an example of New Zealand best practice, it identified the application of RACI model as core for noting the functions and level of involvement of stakeholders in  procurement.

Accountable- This entail an active decision making process and authority to approve or reject an undertaking. For Occidental of Oman identified spend area, stakeholders identify accountability level required. By engagement of a procurement and supply chain manager, effective decision making is attained. In line with Putra et al. (2020), inventory is applied in ensuring the entire procurement process are pursued. Other than successful procurement cycle, through accountability, ensure they own faced issues. An appropriate instance is where there do not have enough materials to maintain their health and safety equipment. For the phenomenon, PS&M and inventory planning can respond to issues arising and evidencing specific areas of people leading to issues prevalent.

Consult-  This aspect is used in identifying stakeholders and people to be provided with detailed feedback and input before pursuing their practices. In line with CIPS (2021) who note that stakeholders are seen as core practitioner. Different stakeholders are engaged in Occidental of Oman procurement and supply management (PS&M) to ensure successful procurement approach. This evidence the importance of pursuing stakeholders analysis to establish different stakeholders in procurement and supply chain. For instance, clients stakeholders need to be appropriately managed in a close as they are importantly influencing PS&M process. The different suppliers are essential for holistically engaged with quality and competencies essential to guarantee information sufficiency. A holistic stakeholder analysis by use of Mendelow Matrix is

Inform– Considering the findings from RACI model, this include different stakeholders and people notifying on decisions made in procurement cycle and way forward. More critically, informal consultations are done and not a must to lead to final decision (CIPS, 2022a). In figure 6 findings, monitoring category of stakeholders is evident. This is inclusive of regulators of HSE for ensuring Occidental of Oman abide to policy and quality aspects. As stipulated by RACI Model, negotiation approaches ought to make their priorities to be on quality which are influenced by need for approving and abiding to government laws. All the chemicals which are sourced by Occidental of Oman are supposed to have met specific stipulations which is appropriately achieved. This is with a guarantee of on-time provision and success in planning for all products.

2.2 Stakeholders Analysis

Advancing from the findings obtained in RACI model, analysis of stakeholders is essential. According to CIPS (2021) the importance of this to the organisation is assurance of quality service provided, products and project implementation. Considering the organisation activities (tactical, strategic and operational), successful practice would be informed by stakeholders support, commitment levels and their input. Generally, in Occidental of Oman, a set of categories are in place and grouped into internal, connected and external as illustrated in figure 6;

Figure 6:Stakeholders Analysis

In line with figure 6 findings, considering the types of stakeholders, they are involved to influence a successful supply chain and overall cycle which include clients, customers, logistics and provisions in line with Oman government laws. The stakeholders mandate is to guarantee successful practice. Also, through an active stakeholders analysis, it is possible to pursue a holistic procurement and supply management essential for promoting thoughts and international practices with innovation and expertise put into account for holistic engagement and interaction. This is impacted by what is illustrated in figure below. As illustrated in figure 7, a further analysis of the Occidental of Oman stakeholders is provided;

Figure 7:Occidental of Oman Stakeholders Analysis Summary

Low-Interest; High-Power- Considering the H&S providers, partners and safety department in Occidental of Oman, they are actively involved in determining the negotiation process. They are in a position of leveraging on resources and setting good negotiation environment. Hence, their participation in negotiation is limited but must be kept informed. This is by being provided with updated information on the quality of H&S and chemicals required.

High-Power; Low-Interest- This category of keep satisfied stakeholders and entail the administration and board of management. They have immense power owing to how they influence operations of their organisations. For instance, considering the current global economic recession, Occidental of Oman has substantially lowered their budget in various spend categories. This is with the board approving and sourcing plan appropriately adopted.

High-Power; High-Interest- For this category, it entail inclusion of procurement teams, the H&S and chemicals manufacturers, clients or their end users, the finance and legal departments. The level of their interest is to promote holistic management and inclusion in holistic sourcing strategy.

Low-Power; High-Interest– Considering the sourcing of H&S and chemicals by the organisation, this include suppliers engaged in this spend category. Their interest is to increase the overall sales and revenues by establishing appropriate relations with the buyer or Occidental of Oman. Further, the different communities and societies with interest on CSR strategies in Occidental of Oman ensure that their success is not limited. Hence, they ought to be informed in regard to the most strategic sourcing strategy applicable.

3.0 Negotiation Plan for Occidental of Oman in H&S and Chemicals

 The core purpose of negotiation is to enhance the success of the PS&M and gain in optimum. This is evidenced in CIPS (2021) guidance which directs…………………………………….

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