(Solution) Explain different approaches to managing change

Lewin’s change model
Kurt Lewin argued that any change takes place in three steps: unfreezing, changing, and refreezing. The first is preparatory as it helps affected persons to analyse the current situation and come to the realisation that things will be changing soon. Here, persons affected are guided to understand the shortcomings of the present situation and need for change. The ‘change’ phase is where change is implemented. The phase is somewhat stressful; nonetheless the plans continue with constant communication. Excellent communication helps to dispell rumours and empower all members to act. The refreezing stage involves development of strategies that will anchor the changes to make them last (Ciopages Staff Writer, 2022).
Limitations The Lewin change model is arguably simple to comprehend and implement, but it has some limitations. For example, it paints an incorrect picture about the simplicity of change. Change is a very complex process, contrary to what Lewin insinuates. On the same note, organisations cannot be frozen given their fluid nature. There may not be enough time for employees to get accustomed to modifications. The model also ignores the fact that one cannot accurately project what will take place after the change process has started (Startup Talky, 2021).
Kotter’s model
Change management takes place in eight steps. The first is creating a sense of urgency by helping members of the organisation to see the need for change. The second is creating a guiding coalition by enlisting all the key players, namely the company leaders and stakeholders. Step three is forming strategic initiatives and vision, where the change leader will define the intended changes. The vision must be aligned with the change initiative as well as the company’s core values.  Next step is communicating the change vision in a manner that encourages everyone to accept it and also support it. To achieve this, the vision together with strategies should be incorporated into daily decisions and routine activities. Change leaders should also demonstrate behaviours they want to see in employees. Fifth is removing obstacles that arise from inadequate processes, rigid organisational structures and disempowered managers (Aktas, 2022). This may be achieved through mentoring and training employees and rewarding employees who put effort to implement the change. Step six is setting short-term goals, which rests on the recognition that actual change may take time to accomplish. To spare employees the discouragement that may occur when they dont achieve results for a process for which they have worked for a long time, change leaders should set short-term objectives whose achievement can be celebrated early. Examples of short-term goals include cost reduction initiatives and profit boosting plans (Aktas, 2022). Consolidating gains and building on change progress is the next step. The idea is to keep the momentum by making sure that team work hard to attain the vision of the change (Smith, Skinner & Read, 2020). Leaders identify successes and failures, maximising on quick wins and eliminating procedures that are unnecessary. The final step is ingratiating/instituting the change. Leaders identify and reinforce positive behaviours while motivating employees to embrace the new (Gottwald & Lansdown, 2021). The changes are anchored into the organisational culture. Limitations Although Kotter’s model provides clarity of steps required to implement change, it is criticised for being a top-down approach that could lead to missed opportunities as not all members take part in co-creating the vision. It could also cause resentment together with resistance amongst employees and is also not very helpful in terms of sustaining change (Expert Program Management, 2018).  
Discuss models for how change is experienced. (AC2.4) Short references should be added into your narrative below. Please remember to only list your long references in the reference box provided at the end of this section. Word count: Approximately 350 words.

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