(Solution) Explain theories and models which examine organisational culture and human behaviour

Handy’s model
The main idea in this model is that it is impossible to separate organisational culture from organisational culture since culture depends by the magnitude of centralisation in an organisation. The model categorises culture into four: person, power, role, and task (Nayak & Tabassum, 2022).
Role cultures are characterised by high centralisation and formalisation- there are strict rules and procedures and roles are formal in nature. This culture best suits bureaucracies and large companies operating within stable environments (Nayak & Tabassum, 2022).
The task culture best suits service organisations within competitive environments and those that are inclined towards innovation and creativity (Chletsos & Saiti, 2020). Centralisation is high but formalisation is low such that tasks are flexible and oriented towards results; there is also cooperation among teams. Small businesses together with entrepreneurs operating within turbulent environments will find the power culture most appropriate. Communication lines are short and centralisation low.

Lastly, the person culture fits professional service providers and companies in stable/predictable environments. The main feature of this culture is that both centralisation and formalisation are low. Subsequently, ambitions and talents of individuals are recognised and supported while status is accorded on basis of profession (Nayak & Tabassum, 2022).
The Handy model is flawed because it advances the notion that the various cultures are fixed. In reality, organisations experience different situations at different points, which means that the different cultures outlined by Handy may all apply to one organisation although at different times ((Chletsos & Saiti, 2020).
Theories of human behaviour
Theory of planned behaviour It argues that the decision of an individual to behave in a certain way is influenced by his/her intention to behave so. Precisely, the theory argues that intention is the sole motivating factor behind behaviours and that one’s behaviour reflects the amount of effort that one put towards controlling or reinforcing that behaviour (Brookes, 2021).
The theory further identifies three variables that determine intention: personal attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control of behaviour (Sussman & Gifford, 2019). Personal attitudes comprise an individual’s prejudices, both constructive and destructive, that come to mind when he/she considers a given behaviour. For example, one’s attitude towards alcohol is that it makes one forget his/her troubles. Subjective norms refer to how individuals view other people’s ideas about a specific behaviour, while perceived behavioural control measures the degree to which individuals believe that they can control their behaviour (Brookes, 2021). It is determined by the individual’s determination, ability, and availability of support as well as resources.
Limitations theory of planned behaviour is based on the assumption that individuals have all resources as well as opportunities required to successfully exhibit desired behaviours irrespective of their intentions. Secondly, the theory does not take into consideration variables that affect intention, such as past experience, threats, fear, or mood. It is also based on the assumption of behaviour as the outcome of linear decision-making processes that cannot change (LaMorte, 2022).  
Assess how people practices impact on organisational culture and behaviour. (AC2.2) Short references should be added into your narrative below. Please remember to only list your long references in the reference box provided at the end of this section. Word count: Approximately 350 words.

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