Organisational change is imperative in promoting customer satisfaction and the competitive advantage of the firm. The drivers of change include customer behaviour, technology, and market trends. According to CIPD (2019), the impacts of not managing change are devastating to the company and may result in loss of market share. It is, therefore, vital for managers to demonstrate competence in supporting change initiatives and collaborating with employees. This paper examines how a restaurant food change can change its menu from Ghanaian to continental. The analysis is based on three tasks of different ways of managing the change, strategies that can be used to enhance the acceptance of change, and the reasons for resisting change.
Task 1: Different Approaches that the CEO Could Use to Manage Change
The chief executive officer (CEO) can employ different approaches to manage the change, which will ensure acceptance from the employees and meet the intended objectives.
Expert approach: This entails the hiring of an expert to conduct a rational analysis of the current organisational needs and make the proposals. The managers and employees usually do not participate in the process. In the restaurant case, the role of the experts would be to identify the key aspects the firm requires to effect the continental menu, such as new skills and the firm’s layout. The expert’s strategy may, however, exhibit various changes, including high costs and anxiety among the employees, which may result in resistance. The CEO should, however, examine the expert’s proposals and determine whether they are feasible to the firm.
Power approach: This approach entails influencing the affected individuals without establishing a consensus. However, there may be incentives to accept the proposed changes and ensure support from the implementation. The incentives may include salary, career opportunities, more subordinates, and higher status. In the restaurant’s case, the power strategy is demonstrated in using the representatives or department managers to identify the challenges that they would like to address. This provides the foundation for further decisions. In the power strategy, the top management collaborates with the other leaders to effect the changes. However, the power should be centralised and transparent to ensure efficiency in the implementation of the changes.
Combination of power and expert strategies: The power and expert approaches seldom function alone. The combination of the two approaches is based on exploiting the strengths of each to ensure an efficient change management process. In the restaurant case, the presentation of the change proposals from the experts prompts the use of power to acknowledge and use the recommendations. The experts should also recognise resistance to change.
Organisational development: This approach is classified as evolutionary, where the changes are aimed at enhancing the company’s efficiency in product and service delivery. The change focuses on transforming its processes and structures that underpin the firm’s activities, such as the menu in the restaurant’s case.
Participative approach: This is an effective strategy in organisational development and change. It involves the company empowering the workers to define the working conditions, including the organisational structure. The goals and policies are developed to fulfill the task. Although experts can be consulted in the process, the organisation focuses on self-development through its resources. In the case of a restaurant, participative strategy involves engaging the employees in the implementation process, including the chef and the customer attendants to understand the new aspects that present alongside the intercontinental menu.
Theoretical approach: Effective management of change may involve various theories, which outline the process and consideration factors. One of the theories that the restaurant can use include Lewin’s model that involves unfreezing, change, and refreezing. Another theory is Kotter’s eight-step model through which people understand the importance of the change, change, and integrate the new approaches in the firm’s structure and culture (Teczke et al., 2017). Across the change management approaches, the employees should understand the importance of the changes and the successful ones integrated into the company’s structure.
Task 2: Major Strategies that Can Be Used to Improve Acceptance to Changes Within the Organisation
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