(Solution) New Avado 5C001- Organisational Performance and Culture in Practice Questions

5C001- Organisational Performance and Culture in Practice

Table of Contents

Question 1. 2

1.1 Organisation Structures advantages and disadvantages; reasons underpinning them.. 2

Functional Organisation Structure. 2

Hierarchical Organisation Structure. 3

1.2  Services and Customers Organisational Structure. 5

Organisation Strategy. 5

Products and services. 5

Customers. 6

Question 2. 6

1.3 External Factors and Trends Impacting Organisations. 6

Question 3. 8

1.4 Technology Scale in Organisations; Impacts to Work and Workplaces. 8

Question 4. 10

2.1 Theory/Model of Organisational Culture and Human Behaviours. 10

Collegial Model 10

Systems Theory. 10

Question 5. 11

2.2 Organisation Culture and Behaviour Impact. 11

Question 6. 12

2.3 Approaches of Change Management. 12

Lewin-3 Steps Model 12

Drivers of Change Process. 14

2.4 Experiencing Change Models. 15

Question 7. 16

2.5 Wellbeing at Work Importance and Factors which Impact Wellbeing. 16

Question 8. 19

3.1 Employee Lifecycle and Different People Practice Roles. 19

Question 9. 20

3.2 People practices link with organisation. 20

Question 10. 21

3.1 Consultation and engagement of internal customers to understand needs 21

References. 22

Appendices. 28

Appendix 1: PESTEL Analysis. 28

Question 1

1.1 Organisation Structures advantages and disadvantages; reasons underpinning them

The organisation structures differs in organisations operating in various sector which inform their uniqueness in products and services deliver to their customers.

Functional Organisation Structure

This is a structure where an organisation is fragmented into different departments which play a particular role/expertise. According to Somov (2018), the fragments are functional units which are lead by a functional department head or a manager. For example, Amazon operate through this type of structure as shown in figure 1;

Figure 1: Example of functional structure (Amazon)

The underpinning rationale of using functional organisation structure is go promote ability of an organisation to use functional units to gain profit by engaging the most qualified skills with good leadership. Also, niBusiness (2022) note that this lower the potential of a conflict of lack of understanding of whom to report to by the employees.

The advantages of functional organisation structure are;

Specialists engaged– By use of a functional organisation structure, specialists are engaged. Also, by having specific employees service particular departments, return clients increase with efficiency in delivering services.

Speedy operations– For organisations which use functional organisation structures, they have their technologies department effective in managing faced issues. For instance, in McKinsey (2020), it identify that functional structures have been effective after COVID-19 pandemic owing to the need of fastening the fully resumption to business.

Clear operations– In a functional organisation structure, there are many employees specialising in specific job responsibilities hence siloed. According to Hillman and Guenther (2021), roles duplications are mitigated which could use a lot of time and input. This is with the management and other teams appropriately directed.

Conversely, for disadvantages, they are;

Miscoordination– Often, a challenge emerges where the different functional units cannot work collaboratively/harmoniously. In such a phenomenon, Fernandez-Espejo et al. (2019) identify it to be occurring through the different functions tending to outshine one another leading to acrimonious practices.

Disputes on roles allocation– In most instances, there are conflicts emerging from the lower end of the functional units of an entity structure. This is identified by Human Capital (2022) as due to differing goals, competing for budget allocation and egos clashing in these different functional units.

Hierarchical Organisation Structure

This is a form of organisation structure which prioritise on exercise of varying authority levels with chain of command de-linking from different levels in an organisation. According to CIPD (2022), this structure guide formal decision making in an organisation running top-down. In Saudi Arabia, an example of organisation using this structure is Saudi Aramco as illustrated in figure 2;

Figure 2: Aramco Organisation Structure

The underpinning rationale of this structure use is the capacity to exercise different authority levels evidenced by a specified chain of command integrating varying management levels. For example, in Saudi Aramco, their expansion both onshore and offshore inform the need for expansion of their structure to taller.

Considering advantages, they are;

Clearly elaborate Career Growth and Succession Plan– In the hierarchical organisation structure, their staff have the capability to evidence significant command. As evidenced Indeed (2022), this influence possibility of successful career path and succession planning. For example, in the Saudi Aramco organisation, in all the departments, employees equally compete to ascend to higher positions. The outcome of this is increasing their overall motivation, morale and performance increase. The organisation is ranked position 1st in KSA and 4th globally in terms of its performance and success.

Increased control– By adopting hierarchical structure, staff are appropriately positioned to appreciate different leadership and management levels. This is since the pyramid structure in place has clearly expounded managerial functions. An uninterrupted practice is evident in Saudi Aramco (CIPD, 2022).

Conversely, for disadvantages, they are;

Cost to implement high– To run a hierarchical structure tend to use a lot of costs (Le et al., 2018). In supporting this assertion, considering an organisation such as Saudi Aramco, operating their multiple managerial roles both onshore and offshore, they must be regularly remunerated and appreciated in varying scales. Hence, the outcome of this is immense wages being incurred to implement the structure. The phenomenon is complex as there are employees with varying qualifications and experience hence higher pay demands.

Reduced action/ slowed decision making– Considering a hierarchical structure has many managers being engaged, it is not possible to speedily make decisions. This is informed by the need to consult heavily across the hierarchy to arrive at a common agreeable decision.

1.2  Services and Customers Organisational Structure

Organisation Strategy


In the case of an organisation which operate in distinct geographical locations, this form of structure depend on projected results in their practices. In line with Small Business (2019), this is to aid the organisation in profitability and market dominance by stratifying their employees to skills and experience categories.


In contemporary organisations, the core mandate of an entity is leveraging on profitability and dominating their markets. Therefore, by using a hierarchical structure, the departments pursue a clearly  identified purpose and collaborating with each other to execute their functions. This lead to sustainable results in the practice of an organisation.

Products and services


This organisation structure has their products and services as a core area of the organisation operations. The best practice entail ensuring high-level quality products and services are offered which is unique from their competing organisations. As evidenced in Indeed (2022a), this structure tend to lower scope of confusion on developing products and services.


The popularity of hierarchical is ability to embrace technology and innovativeness. As such, the products and services provision are done in a modernised manner. As such, Keum and See (2017) argued that hierarchical structure guide the ability of an organisation to capitalise on profits while offering quality products and services to their customers.



In this structure, the best employees are recruited with a capacity to holistically execute their mandate for optimum customers satisfaction. In the different areas of practice, clients are the priority with all their operations customised to customers’ expectations.


In this structure, the clients are offered with an on-time support with all their interests being prioritised. Their main goal as they advance their goals is making sure that their clients are in optimum satisfied. Considering that a functional structure has a department singly mandated to service clients, interests are a priority, prioritised and holistically managed. The rationale of this is maximum stakeholders satisfaction.

Connection of Strategy, Products, Services and Customers

In AlFattani et al. (2021), organisation strategy is defined as a dynamic roadmap applied in explaining the entire organisation needs. This is guided by organisation needs for achieving the organisation objectives. As illustrated in figure 3, the importance of this is allocating relevant resources for supporting the different business practices;

Figure 3: Summary of the organisation strategy

It is evident as illustrated in figure 3 that the organisation strategy is relevant to link products and services and customers.

Products and Services– For successful provision of products and services, it is important to have a clear organisation strategy. This is since an appropriate strategy ensure that high-quality services and products are provided for optimum customers satisfaction. Also, AlFattani et al. (2021) noted that organisation strategy has a direct correlation with the products and services offered as detailed in the organisation vision and mission. This improve the level of interaction and products and services provision.

Customers–  The provided organisation strategy, products and services have a direct correlation with the customers. According to Lester et al. (2019) this is evidenced by noting the ability of putting in place appropriate customer experience in business levels. Considering organisations such as Saudi Aramco, a customer-centric approach is in place as core area of their practice. This is intended to guide the organisation towards its achievement of organisation strategy. This is by establishing appropriate customers experiences, distinct performance levels and alignment of their inspiration and innovativeness.

Question 2

The importance of considering external factors and trends is informed by the need to understanding the nature of changing needs of an entity. According to Shtal et al. (2018), for people practice professionals, they are best positioned to integrate good measures in their business environment informed by needs. Therefore, they demonstrate passion in guaranteeing staff satisfaction in job roles.

The different trends are summarised in figure 3;

Figure 3: Saudi Arabia Business Environment Trends

For evaluating the external factors and trends, the PESTEL model is applicable which define the best practice for aligning organisation operations to achieve their goals (Matovic, 2020). In Appendix 1, putting into account of an organisation such as MNGHA in KSA, PESTLE analysis summary is offered.

Hence, the different factors which influence MNGHA operations include;

Politics- Considering the core business function of MNGHA is to handle the ill-fated military families health, politics have a significant play in the success of the organisation. The recent KSA administration readjustment has meant new policies in terms of foreign relations and sending their Military to war (iEMed, 2022). Their participation in internal and external fights has increased the demand for the MNGHA services provided. This is with psychological suffering for all the involved customers of the organisation.

Economy- A recent report published by World Bank (2022) highlighted the potential of growth of the KSA economy with 8% as at 2022 and level up in years 2023 and 2024 at 4% and 4.5% respectively. Since the resumption of normal operations post-COVID-19 pandemic, the demand for crude oil has increased double-fold. The outcome of this has been a significant economic growth and development. Nevertheless, a substantial decline in governments investment in public sector organisations has substantially lowered owing to the current economic recession. The situation is however under a considerate focus which harness the capacity for MNGHA practices. As a result of the prevalence of the COVID-19 pandemic, the findings in Yezli and Khan (2020) highlight a reduced investment by the government with approximately 8%.

In regard to the different trends, these include,

COVID-19 pandemic- Considering the MNGHA organisation operations, working in the health environment, they invest in strategies for future management of a pandemic similar to COVID-19. According to AlFattani et al. (2021), in KSA, they embrace appropriate strategies and interventions to ensure any future pandemic is fought prior its distribution to the population. MNGHA has been mandated by the government to establish relevant systems to guarantee successful practices.

Green Environment Policies- This policy has been initiated with a purpose of harnessing climatic changes management (Saudi Green, 2022). For example, considering MNGHA organisation, policy investments make sure that innovation is embraced in managing such a climatic crisis. At the same time, they are appropriately positioned in embrace of sustainability in their operations. For KSA, they have been in a position of embracing relevant measures in their area of operations to manage this occurrence.

Changes in Demographics– A recent study by GMI (2022) it projected male populations are being approximately 21 million which is 60% of the population. This is with 15.5 million representing 45% of the entire population female gender. Further, Millennials has increased representing 40% of the entire workforce with their interest in gig economy increasing substantially. For MNGHA, they have transitioned from only relying on financial metrics for motivating their employees but also embrace career growth and entrepreneurial practices to promote their global presence. In MNGHA organisation for instance, by investing appropriately in tech and innovativeness, they pursue stakeholders interests with distinction.

Question 3

1.4 Technology Scale in Organisations; Impacts to Work and Workplaces

In modern business environment, priority has shifted to employees productivity, work-life balance, commitment/engagement of staff and their health. All these areas are identified by CIPD (2020) report to be influenced by modern technology investments in these organisation. The innovation has lead organisations and employees to embrace technology as part of their day to day operations.

Examples of technologies are;

Electronic Monitoring System (EMS)- This is a technology which has gained traction in the recent years and is used to evaluate and measure how employees execute their roles. According to Lester et al. (2019), by using various physically identified measures, it is possible to track how the employees are performing. Considering an organisation such as MNGH-A, they use the EMS to promote their employees performance, ease process of performance management, effectiveness of policies of HR and hence return on investment. Nevertheless, HR Advisor (2019) identify the weaknesses of this as being inclusive of assumption on issues of privacy. Also, it is cost intensive to implement this as employees retraining would be required.

Artificial Intelligence– This is a strategy which is identified by Charlwood and Guenole (2022) as being used for saving time and production and at the same time promoting entire experience of staff. Today, in different countries, organisations are largely investing on digital literacy amongst their employees while embracing AI in their operations. For example, MNGHA has invested in AI to be able to track their employees performance process and how they can be tracing their staff operations. This is identified in CIPD (2022a) as contributing to an increase in quality of jobs and staff wellbeing. This is with their stress significantly reduced. Implementation of AI in organisations is however cost intensive, unemployment issues affecting good ethics.

Robotics– Considering a report presented in MSG (2022), the robotics are used in automating different repetitive job roles pursued in an entity. Representing the most appropriate strategy, for MNGH-A, it harness advancement of accurate operations in their health services provision.

The impact of the different technologies include;

Work– The different technologies noted directly impact their work functions. This is by pursued roles and in detail integrated. According to TeamStage (2022), approximately 60% of all job roles are supposed to be pursued with the technology skills of the employees being a priority. As at year 2050, 80% of entire job functions could be technology oriented where this situation has been majorly affected by the pandemic.

Working Practices– Considering technology increase and innovation embrace, work practices are impacted by successful communication with all stakeholders engaged. For example, MNGH-A benefit from this by promoting the possibility of attaining exponential growth and performing their roles in their areas of practice. These findings are supported by Deloitte (2022) which evidence technology spending substantial increase impacting 90% increased performance and profits.

Question 4

2.1 Theory/Model of Organisational Culture and Human Behaviours

Collegial Model

This is an organisation culture mode which is identified by Slobodian and Badoz (2019) as informing the organisation culture as characterised by being aware of purpose or course of an organisation. The outcome of this is putting optimum efforts to assist organisation achieve their goals. By embrace of an appropriate culture, it is possible for an organisation to successfully collaborate with others in their job roles. For MNGH-A case study for instance, their culture is in line with Collegial model in that they operate in teams and all their departments being mandated to work collaboratively to achieve specified roles. The outcome of this is the organisation being ranked as a leader in provision of high quality services in KSA Health sector.

In terms of strengths, this model positively impact on knowledge increase for successful employees operations. This is while executing different functions assigned. Also, often, conflicts are found emerging among the different members of the team affecting their practices. This is the limitation of this model. This weakness contribute to lack of effective capacity to execute their roles.

Systems Theory

This is a human behaviours theory which is informed by the view that the structure of an organisation and teams working is coordinated actively. Since organisations are systems, their operations must be well aligned with all the expectations, capacity development and collaboration in implementing their functions. Considering MNGH-A organisation, this theory is relevant as it guides successful integration of their roles informed by varying expectations of stakeholders. Appropriate behaviours in workplace are put into account, detailed roles input with value accrued in their operations.

The main strength of this model is identified in Zhao et al. (2019) as being more modern and updated increasing their suitability in modern business environment. In terms of weakness, this theory fails to describe how the employees views are coordinated and put into account to promote collaboration. However, it identify how the skills are attained for the organisation success.

Therefore, considering the theories, they are important in MNGH-A making sure they succeed in transition towards new strategies embrace. A case example is due to their placement in healthcare, strategic rewards are the common trend which is being used as a modernised practice.

Question 5

2.2 Organisation Culture and Behaviour Impact

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